If you’re new to electronics, you might be wondering what an electric circuit is. In its simplest form, an electric circuit is a closed loop of conductive material through which electricity can flow. circuits can be found in all sorts of electronic devices, from simple flashlights to sophisticated computers.

There are three basic types of electric circuits: series, parallel, and series-parallel. Each type has its own characteristics and applications.

## Series Circuits

A series circuit is the simplest type of electric circuit. It consists of a single path for electrons to flow through. This path can be created by a conducting wire or other conductive material.

Series circuits have several important characteristics:

• The current in a series circuit is the same at all points.

• The voltage in a series circuit is divided among the components.

• The total resistance of a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances.

Series circuits are often used in simple devices, such as flashlights, where there is only one path for current to flow.

## Parallel Circuits

A parallel circuit is more complex than a series circuit. It consists of two or more paths for electrons to flow through. These paths can be created by conductive wires or other conductive materials.

Parallel circuits have several important characteristics:

• The voltage in a parallel circuit is the same at all points.

• The current in a parallel circuit is divided among the components.

• The total resistance of a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances.

Parallel circuits are often used in more complex devices, such as computers, where there is a need for multiple paths for current to flow.

## Series-Parallel Circuits

A series-parallel circuit is a combination of a series circuit and a parallel circuit. It consists of two or more paths for electrons to flow through, with some of those paths being in series and some being in parallel.

Series-parallel circuits have several important characteristics:

• The voltage in a series-parallel circuit is divided among the components in the series portion of the circuit.

• The current in a series-parallel circuit is divided among the components in the parallel portion of the circuit.

• The total resistance of a series-parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances in the series portion of the circuit and the reciprocal of the sum of the individual resistances in the parallel portion of the circuit.

Series-parallel circuits are often used in more complex devices, such as computers, where there is a need for multiple paths for current to flow and where some of those paths need to be in series and some need to be in parallel.

Now that you know the basics of electric circuits, you can begin to understand how they are used in electronic devices. You’ll also be able to better understand the characteristics of each type of circuit and how to apply them in various situations.